Rachel Brummert, Charlotte, NC.
American Family Physician: “Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis.”
Antonio Crespo, MD, infectious disease specialist, Orlando Health.
Heather Free, PharmD, spokesperson, American Pharmacists Association.
David Melvin, Illinois.
Andrea Pallotta, PharmD, Cleveland Clinic.
FDA: “Information for Healthcare Professionals: Fluoroquinolone Antimicrobial Drugs [ciprofloxacin (marketed as Cipro and generic ciprofloxacin), ciprofloxacin extended-release (marketed as Cipro XR and Proquin XR), gemifloxacin (marketed as Factive), levofloxacin (marketed as Levaquin), moxifloxacin (marketed as Avelox), norfloxacin (marketed as Noroxin), and ofloxacin (marketed as Floxin)],” “Fluoroquinolone Safety Labeling Changes: FDA/CDER Drug Information Webinar, April 4, 2017,” “FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes,” “FDA updates warnings for fluoroquinolone antibiotics,” “FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients,” “FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together.”
Clinical Infectious Diseases: “Opportunities to Improve Fluoroquinolone Prescribing in the United States for Adult Ambulatory Care Visits.”
LiverTox.nih.gov: “Ciprofloxacin,” “Levofloxacin.”
Nature: “When antibiotics turn toxic.”
American Urological Association, “Medical Student Curriculum: Adult UTI.”